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How Does Bv Affect Men



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Question
Can Men get Bacterial vaginosis and Why does it keep coming back?
My boyfriend and i have been together for about a year. We both claim to be faithful to one another. But i keep getting BV. When I ask my doctor he said I take to many baths and that BV is only found in women. Also I become dry when we have sex and it causes my boyfriend to get this scab on his penis. We both had a STD screening and we both got (-) results. Can someone tell me what's going on.

Answer
BV is basically caused by an organism called Gardnerella vaginitis. It is NOT considered an STD. Your boyfriend isn;t likely to be able to provide the right environment on/in his body for him to get it. Here is a clipping off the net: (BV) is characterized by the overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardneralla mobiluncus, and Mycoplasma hominis. Bacterial vaginosis is grossly underdiagnosed because many women assume they have a yeast infection and treat symptoms with over-the-counter medications. Incidence and Prevalence Bacterial vaginosis accounts for 60% of vulvovaginal infections. Young adult women, particularly those who are sexually active, are most commonly affected. Causes and Risk Factors BV is caused by a change in the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina. Lactobacillus, helpful bacteria, metabolizes glycogen to lactic acid in the vagina and maintains normal vaginal pH, which provides a natural defense against unhealthy bacteria proliferation. When the defense is weakened, other bacteria present in the vagina (e.g., Bacteroides sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Gardnerella vaginalis, G. mobiluncus, Mycoplasma hominis) proliferate and cause symptoms. About 50% of women have G. vaginalis in their vaginal flora but do not develop infection. Broad-spectrum antibiotics may destroy healthy bacteria, disrupt the vagina's normal flora, and promote infection. Douching, overused or retained tampons, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, and products containing nonoxynol-9 may also disrupt the balance. Bacterial vaginosis also is associated with having multiple sex partners, a new monogamous sexual relationship, and a history of STDs. Signs and Symptoms A fishy vaginal odor, itching, and irritation are common signs of BV and may be particularly noticeable after intercourse or menses. It may be accompanied by a smooth, sticky white or gray discharge 4 days to 4 weeks following exposure. Elevated vaginal pH level is also a symptom. Complications BV is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), female infertility, tubal (ectopic) pregnancy, premature birth, and low birth weight in infants born to infected mothers. Diagnosis Diagnosis is usually made by visual observation and by smell. A pelvic examination is performed to determine whether the cervix is producing abnormal secretions and to check for other diseases. Vaginal fluid may be treated with a 10% solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), which makes the characteristic odor more pronounced. A sample is usually taken for microscopic examination to confirm the presence of bacteria, and pH levels are checked. Most physicians recommend a full STD screening. Treatment Antibiotics such as metronidazole and clindamycin are generally prescribed, as oral (pill) or topical (cream) treatments. When used topically, these medications may cause side effects such as stinging, burning, and irritation. Douching should be avoided. Sex partners may require treatment if infection recurs.



Question
How does HIV transmitted to women & men, sexually?
I am still not very clear abt how the virus is transmitted during intercourse or can it be transmitted even if the couple doesn't really have intercourse, like just heavy petting or something? I read in the news, more women are affected than men, how is that? Which substance of the body that contains & spreads the virus, exactly? I'm very curious, can anyone help me please? Thank u :)

Answer
The following common body fluids have the ability to transmit HIV: Blood Semen Vaginal Fluids Rectal Fluids Breast Milk (there are other fluids that can transmit HIV infection but are internal fluids that are virtually never exposed to another person) For HIV to be able to infect someone it has to cross through the mucosal membranes (the skin that lines the vagina, cervix, rectum, urethra (hole where urine/pee/semen comes out), mouth, nose, etc). In other words, the HIV+ body fluid has to get inside the bloodstream of another person. The mucosal membranes help to keep foreign pathogens out by creating a protective layer. sometimes with mucous to increase the protection. Contrary to popular belief, there does not have to be a cut or a tear in the membrane for HIV to pass through (though the presence of such will increase that persons risk should they be exposed). Anything that causes inflammation of the mucosal tissue (other STIs, rough sex, bacterial vaginosis BV, chronic yeast infections, oral infections, etc) makes the tissues easier for HIV to get through, increases the blood supply to the area, as well as increases the odds that HIV will find the cells it needs to infect. HIV infects certain immune cells which are more likely to be present in that area if there is inflammation or an infection, as the body would have sent more immune cells into the area to deal with the problem. That is why having ANY STI (other than HIV) can increase the risk of getting HIV should you be exposed. And of course, if the STI involves lesions or ulcers these are holes right through the mucosal membrane and can drastically increase the risk of getting HIV HIV cannot be transmitted with heavy petting unless there is an exchange of the above body fluids as mentioned above. Women who have sex with men are biologically more at risk for HIV infection for a variety of reasons (there are also social factors that increase a woman's risk). -There is a large vaginal mucosal area with lengthy contact with semen and the cervix is especially at risk as the mucosal membrane there is only about 1 cell thick. Vaginal wall mucosa is around 12-15 cells thick, though HIV can still get through there. For men, there is a relatively small mucosal area on the penis. The urethra is one area and if the man is not circumcised, the foreskin offers a way for HIV to enter the body. But the surface area is MUCH smaller than that of a woman's genital mucosa -Semen, on average, has a higher amount of HIV in it than vaginal fluids (this depends on a variety of factors) -Women are more likely than men to have an STI and not have any symptoms . Men are more likely to have symptoms and therefore get treated -It is possible that HIV seems to be attracted to cells that have higher amounts of estrogen...this is being looked at now. In developed countries (with safe blood supplies), outside of unprotected vaginal and anal sex, sharing needles, and in a smaller number of cases oral sex, HIV transmission is highly unlikely. HIV is harder to transmit than most people realize. And the factors that can increase a person's risk may not be evident to them. And, in response to Leslie's point to ponder re: breast milk and transmission to infants: -in North America the vast amount of mother to child transmissions occur during delivery -infants do not have a fully closed GI tract and their GI tract is super sensitive to any foreign material and can cause inflammation (see above) - we now know that HIV+ women who breastfeed are less likely to transmit HIV if they are on HIV treatment, and if they do not introduce ANY (I repeat, ANY) other fluid to the infant (water, juice, etc). This plays a part in areas of the world where not breastfeeding is an option. In North America, if an HIV+ women (who knows she is HIV+) breastfed her child she could be charged. In poorer nations, a woman may not have access to clean water, be able to afford formula, etc women are advised to SOLELY breastfeed.



Question
Does anybody have any other ways to treat a recurring vaginal bacterial infection?
I have had recurring bacterial infections for what feels like ever. My doctor (I know I need to see a different one) just keeps prescribing medication - which works fine until about 3 days after I've stopped. I was wondering if anybody has had any improvement with their BV using alternative methods. I do eat lots of yogurt and also take supplements of acidophilus, I also eat lots of garlic. My doctor also states that my boyfriend can not have bv - I have read that men can - is it true? I also know that its not an STD - I have been tested. It drives me crazy and I would just like to find a way to keep it in check - any info on things that have worked would be great. Has anyone ever tried enzara - its a herb you can buy online that is supposed to help.

Answer
The cause of BV is not fully understood. BV is associated with an imbalance in the bacteria that are normally found in a woman's vagina. The vagina normally contains mostly "good" bacteria, and fewer "harmful" bacteria. BV develops when there is an increase in harmful bacteria. Not much is known about how women get BV. There are many unanswered questions about the role that harmful bacteria play in causing BV. Any woman can get BV. However, some activities or behaviors can upset the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina and put women at increased risk including: Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners, Douching, and Using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. It is not clear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. Women do not get BV from toilet seats, bedding, swimming pools, or from touching objects around them. Women that have never had sexual intercourse are rarely affected. also: does your yogurt have active cultures in it? if not then you're just eating a bunch of yogurt it wont do anything for you if it doesnt have active cultures. im not sure where you live but personally i drink a Cascade Fresh All Natural drinkable yogurt every morning to help keep my immune system healthy and keep infection away. it has 8 active cultures and comes in many flavors. im pretty sure men cant have it or carry it for that matter to read about it some more see these links: http://www.cdc.gov/std/BV/STDFact-Bacterial-Vaginosis.htm http://www.herpes-coldsores.com/std/bacterial_vaginosis.htm http://www.fwhc.org/health/bv.htm http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdbv.htm




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