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How did James Chadwick Discover The Neutron



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Question
How did james chadwick discover neutrons?
I don't really want to know how, but what he used. Yeah, I just want to know what technology was available to him. Thanks.

Answer
See the reference for the experimental setup. "In 1930 it was discovered that Beryllium, when bombarded by alpha particles, emitted a very energetic stream of radiation. This stream was originally thought to be gamma radiation. However, further investigations into the properties of the radiation revealed contradictory results. Like gamma rays, these rays were extremely penetrating and since they were not deflected upon passing through a magnetic field, neutral. However, unlike gamma rays, these rays did not discharge charged electroscopes (the photoelectric effect). Irene Curie and her husband discovered that when a beam of this radiation hit a substance rich in protons, for example paraffin, protons were knocked loose which could be easily detected by a Geiger counter..........."



Question
how did james chadwick discover the neutron?
I have to write a 400-500 word essay on this and I can't find that much information.

Answer
Here's a few links to lots of info on Chadwick: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp32ne.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Chadwick http://atomic-molecular-optical-physics.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_discovery_of_the_neutron http://www.light-science.com/chadwick.html http://www.thocp.net/biographies/chadwick_james.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZK-yeuu_p9k http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/chadwick/index.html (this one gives insight into Chadwick's thinking, in his own words) http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Chadwick-1932/Chadwick-neutron.html (this one gives detailed info on the actual experiments)



Question
Scientists and their contributions to the study of atoms?
I need a short summary ( 2-3 sentences ) of the scientists contributions to the atom, and the date they discovered it. (year, or broader.) the scientists are: Aristotle Democritus John Dalton Joseph Thomson Ernest Rutherford Niels Bohr James Chadwick Louis De Brogile Dimitri Mendeleev And Enrico Fermi. Im trying to get this project done, and have a good 2+ hours of homework in front of me. If anyone could help me out, it would be much appreciated!

Answer
democritus - idea of atoms dalton - plum pudding model thomson - electron rutherford - gold foil experiment showed the nucleus is positively charged bohr - planetary model and energy levels chadwick - neutron de broglie - quantum mechanical model mendeleev - periodic table arranged by atomic masses fermi - quantum theory and particle physics




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