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How Did Benjamin Franklin Change the World

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How did Benjamin Franklin make the Glass Armonica?
Benjamin Franklin built the Glass (H)Armonica in 1762 I want to know what it was made of and how.

Franklin's armonica An armonica.Benjamin Franklin invented a radically new arrangement of the glasses in 1761 after seeing water-filled wine glasses played by Edmund Delaval at Cambridge in England in 1758.[6] Franklin, who called his invention the "armonica" after the Italian word for harmony, worked with London glassblower Charles James to build one, and it had its world premiere in early 1762, played by Marianne Davies. A modern glass armonica built using Benjamin Franklin's design.In Franklin's version, 37 bowls were mounted horizontally nested on an iron spindle. The whole spindle turned by means of a foot-operated treadle. The sound was produced by touching the rims of the bowls with moistened fingers. Rims were painted different colors according to the pitch of the note. A's were dark blue, B's purple, C's red, D's orange, E's yellow, F's green, G's blue, and accidentals white.[7] With the Franklin design it is possible to play ten glasses simultaneously if desired, a technique that is very difficult if not impossible to execute using upright goblets. Franklin also advocated the use of a small amount of powdered chalk on the fingers which helped produce a clear tone in the same way rosin is applied to the bows of string instruments. Some attempted improvements on the armonica included adding keyboards, placing pads between the bowls to reduce vibration,[8] and using violin bows. These variations never caught on because they did not sound as pleasant. Another supposed improvement was to have the glasses rotate into a trough of water. However, William Zeitler put this idea to the test by rotating an armonica cup into a basin of water: the water has the same effect as putting water in a wine glass — it changes the pitch. With several dozen glasses, each a different diameter and thus rotating with a different depth, the result would be musical cacophony.[9] It also made it much harder to make the glass speak, and muffled the sound. Glass Armonica Invented in 1761 by Benjamin Franklin, the Glass Armonica was one of his favorite inventions. The word "Armonica" is the Italian word for "Harmony". It is played on the same principle of rubbing a wet finger around the rim of a wineglass. The glass bowls are individually tuned, so that they do not need to be filled with water, though the players fingers do need to be moistened with water. The glass bowls are tuned by size, mounted one inside each other with cork on a metal spindle. The glasses are made to spin with a flywheel attached to a foot pedal. The composer Mozart, being into Oddmusic himself, composed two of his works specifically for the Glass Armonica. We've known about the 'wet-finger-around-the-wine-glass' idea since Renaissance times—one of the first people to write about that phenomenon was Galileo. Sets of water-tuned glasses on which you can play tunes were popularized in England by Pockridge and Gluck in the early 1700's. In 1761 Benjamin Franklin was in London representing the Pennsylvania Legislature to Parliament. Franklin was very interested in music: he was a capable amateur musician, attended concerts regularly, and even wrote a string quartet! One of the concerts Franklin attended was by Deleval, a colleague of his in the Royal Academy, who performed on a set of water tuned wineglasses patterned after Pockridge's instrument. Franklin was enchanted, and determined to invent and build 'a more convenient' arrangement. Franklin's new invention premiered in early 1762, played by Marianne Davies—a well known musician in London who learned to play Franklin's new invention. Initially Franklin named it the 'glassychord', but soon settled on 'armonica' as the name for his new invention—after the Italian word for harmony "armonia". Apparently Franklin built a second instrument for Ms. Davies, as she toured Europe with hers, while Franklin returned to Philadelphia with his own. The armonica made quite a hit, particularly in Germany. Mozart was introduced to it by Franz Mesmer, who used his to 'mesmerize' his patients, and later Mozart wrote two works for it (a solo armonica piece, and a larger quintet for armonica, flute, oboe, viola and cello). Beethoven also wrote a little piece for amonica and narrator (!), and many of their colleagues of the day composed for it as well—some 200 pieces for armonica (solo, or with other instruments) survive from that era.

How do atheists who believe the founding fathers werent Christian respond to this?
George Washington 1st U.S. President "While we are zealously performing the duties of good citizens and soldiers, we certainly ought not to be inattentive to the higher duties of religion. To the distinguished character of Patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of Christian." John Adams 2nd U.S. President and Signer of the Declaration of Independence "Suppose a nation in some distant Region should take the Bible for their only law Book, and every member should regulate his conduct by the precepts there exhibited! Every member would be obliged in conscience, to temperance, frugality, and industry; to justice, kindness, and charity towards his fellow men; and to piety, love, and reverence toward Almighty God ... What a Eutopia, what a Paradise would this region be." "The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were the general principles of Christianity. I will avow that I then believed, and now believe, that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God." "The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever." Thomas Jefferson 3rd U.S. President, Drafter and Signer of the Declaration of Independence "God who gave us life gave us liberty. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the Gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with His wrath? Indeed, I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever; That a revolution of the wheel of fortune, a change of situation, is among possible events; that it may become probable by Supernatural influence! The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in that event." "I am a real Christian – that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus Christ." John Hancock 1st Signer of the Declaration of Independence "Resistance to tyranny becomes the Christian and social duty of each individual. ... Continue steadfast and, with a proper sense of your dependence on God, nobly defend those rights which heaven gave, and no man ought to take from us." Benjamin Franklin Signer of the Declaration of Independence and Unites States Constitution "Here is my Creed. I believe in one God, the Creator of the Universe. That He governs it by His Providence. That He ought to be worshipped. That the most acceptable service we render to him is in doing good to his other children. That the soul of man is immortal, and will be treated with justice in another life respecting its conduct in this. These I take to be the fundamental points in all sound religion, and I regard them as you do in whatever sect I meet with them. As to Jesus of Nazareth, my opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the system of morals and his religion, as he left them to us, is the best the world ever saw, or is likely to see; But I apprehend it has received various corrupting changes, and I have, with most of the present dissenters in England, some doubts as to his divinity; though it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an opportunity of knowing the truth with less trouble. I see no harm, however, in its being believed, if that belief has the good consequence, as probably it has, of making his doctrines more respected and more observed; especially as I do not perceive, that the Supreme takes it amiss, by distinguishing the unbelievers in his government of the world with any peculiar marks of his displeasure."--The Writings of Washington, pp. 342-343. --Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, Vol. III, p. 9. --Adams wrote this on June 28, 1813, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson. --Adams wrote this in a letter to his wife, Abigail, on July 3, 1776. --Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XVIII, p. 237. --The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, p. 385. --History of the United States of America, Vol. II, p. 229. --Benjamin Franklin wrote this in a letter to Ezra Stiles, President of Yale University on March 9, 1790. Inspired by;_ylt=ApqO5sOdccxmAaVo1x15xzLwDH1G;_ylv=3?qid=20100618011720AABuY5U WOW a wall of text! I guess no one taught you how to read

I'm glad you brought up Thomas Jefferson. I think, if you actually investigate what the man believed, rather than just copy a wall of text of out of context quotes, you may be quite surprised. The man was not a Christian by most people's definitions. I mean, he went through the New Testament to remove all miraculous events, creating the Jefferson Bible. Anyway, yes, most of the founding fathers held Christian beliefs (though many would be considered unelectable today, given those beliefs), but more than a few, including prominent members like Thomas Jefferson, were not.

How did marriage and women’s roles change from Colonial period to the Republican Period?
How did marriage and women’s roles change from the Colonial period to the Republican Period, into the 19th c. Industrial Period. How did women use the Cult of Domesticity and the Cult of True Woman to carve a niche for themselves? Are these ideas repressive or freeing? In what ways? What ways did women take social power?

In the Colonial period, women's work was vital to the survival of the colonies. Their role in cloth production was particularly important, as cloth was in very short supply in the early colonies, spinning and weaving were vital female skills. They raised poultry, milked cows, made their own butter and cheese, brewed the ale that people drank instead of water, grew vegetables, preserved food for winter, tended the sick, and in the southern colonies in the early decades they often laboured in the fields beside the men. During the later colonial period their economic importance declined somewhat, as more ready-made good became available, and their role as producers was no longer seen as vital. But many women still performed important roles as supporters of husbands in their business for instance, like Deborah Read Franklin, who ran all Benjamin Franklin's business concerns while he spent years in Europe. She was typical of many 18-th century colonial women. With the coming of the Revolutionary War, women's cooperation was vital in boycotting British goods, as the family shoppers without their cooperation "tis impossible to succeed" said South Carolina patriot Christopher Gadsen in 1769. They were also needed to produce the goods that could no longer be bought, and once more their skills in spinning and weaving became vital. Southern ladies wore dresses made of homespun cloth to their fancy balls, and they joined their husbands and fathers in making political toasts and singing patriotic songs. The northern women organised spinning bees and were honoured for their production of homemade material, which they proudly presented to local officials. While the men were away fighting, women took over farms and businesses, and in some parts of the country, endured life under an army of occupation. Abigal Adams for instance held down the fort at the family farm in Massachusetts while her husband was away, sheltered soldiers and refugees, and when dysentery struck in the neighbourhood her house became a hospital. "And such is the distress of the neighbourhood that I can scarcely find a well person to assist me in looking after the sick." she wrote. In the first half of the nineteenth century, American women changed from colonial goodwives to people with more modern concerns. They went to school, and they knew a great deal more about what was going on in the world outside their own neighbourhoods. They were still religious, but they wanted to be happy in this earthly life as well as the next. They thought about marriage in terms of romance and companionship rather than a simple economic partnership. They hoped to see their children rise higher in the world than their parents did. They wanted their homes to be attractive, and comfort was becoming a priority. The period before the Civil War was, for women, both a time of liberation and new restrictions. Teaching became a respectable career, giving middle-class girls an option in life beyond marriage or dependent spinsterhood. Working-class girls entered the factories. A few female pioneers fought their way into the professions and became doctors or ministers or journalists: others entered the public world as reformers or lecturers. But at the same time Americans of both sexes were setting the most rigid rules for proper womanly behaivour in the country's history. Writers loved to list eh qulaities of the True Woiman, and they were always the opposite of the virtues of the true man. "Man is strong - woman is beautiful. Man is daring and confident - woman is diffident and unassuming. Man is great in action - woman in suffering." explained Ladies Museum magazine. The colonial housewife had contributed to the family with her chickens and butter money, but the True Woman relied totally on her husband for emotional and financial support. her only resources were spiritual. The law of the True Woman was attractive to many Americans in the pre-Civil War era, because it emphasised safgety and control. The new industrial economy was creating unheard-of opportunities for making money, but it was unstable, with booms and panics and get-rich-quick schemes and bankruptcies. In the bust of 1881, land values fell asmuch as 75 percent overnight, and when the panic of 1837hit New York, more than a third of the city's workers lost their jobs. Nervous businessmen embraced the idea of the family as a little nest detached from the outside world. The whole country was like the nation's transport system, which had improved so fast that it was possible for people to travel to places they would not have dreamed of a few decades earlir - but at a price. The railroads kept having wrecks and the steamships blew up - there were at least 150 major explosions between 1825 and 1850. it was a giddy, frightening time, and many women liked the idea of being protected by strict boundaries.

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