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How did Agriculture Develop



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Question
Has civilization developed over the last 10 millenia because of or in spite of religion?
I choose the last 10,000 years because agriculture developed around then simultaneously in the Middle East, China, and Papua New Guinea.

Answer
I don't think the answer is a simple one or the other. The annual farming cycle fitting in with the seasons needed some kind of discipline to ensure that certain work that needed to be done by a certain time was undertaken. Other functions of religion was to give authority for laws and justification for (sometimes rather extreme) penalties. It also provided authority for the genocide of other peoples who possessed desired land and resources. So from today's perspective, I think we can see a mixture of "because of" and "despite". We've now developed secular democratic societies in which religions no longer have the authority and power they once had. The authority now comes from the people through the ballot box/postal vote (and maybe eventually online vote as well). As we develop further, it will be more and more "despite" rather than "because"; although as religion becomes less significant (although it might still appear so to religious individuals), "despite" might disappear in the same way as "because" has virtually disappeared. I'm writing this as someone who lives in a secular democratic country. I am of course aware that there are still theocracies and other non-democratic countries that have large economies who are not being left behind technologically; but from my perspective, they are behind culturally - and mutilation, torture and stoning to death (reminiscent of biblical times), are still legally practised as punishment.



Question
How did Industrialized Agriculture develop?
What factors caused the Industrialized Agriculture to develop? And what environmental costs are associated with it?

Answer
When industry in the cities demanded labour and farmers could not hire help, they just had to adopt mechanization to replace that labour. But mechanization is only part of the process. In addition food distribution channels grew to remove farm-consumer contact, and at the same time to impose standards of product presentation, timing, such that old organic methods of production that left worms in apples and bites out of tomatoes totally unacceptable, so insecticides had to be used to meet supermarket demands. We found that food processors wanted to deal with only or mainly farm operations capable of supplying a whole market with a product. So local farm operations were out. We could not supply in quantities listed on the big board. But even more importantly small operators did not have the resources to do marketing and distribution. After all, if you can grow only 5 semitrailers of broccoli per year, you will not be able to contract to supply a supermarket chain through 12 months, you will not be able to supply even one day. So, demanded scale opened the way for very large operations, or some combination of operations. Then major distribution channels began doing integrated operations, plans and ownership designed to implement those plans so that supplies can be matched to marketing plans. This makes agriculture just one part in a larger industry.



Question
Can somebody help me with this History question?
Which of the following statements best describes the development of agriculture in different parts of the world? A. Agriculture began in Central America and then spread to different regions. B. Agriculture developed independently in different parts of the world at different times. C. Agriculture began in the Middle East before spreading to other areas. D. Agriculture developed at about the same time everywhere in world.

Answer
b




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